Adjectives are words such as beautiful, nice, and blue and they show the character of nouns. (A noun is a word that refers to a place, person, thing etc.)

To compare the properties of nouns we use grading, ie – comparatives / superlatives

Before the Superlative we use the definite article "the".

1. Basic types of Adjectives

Type Description
Opinion An opinion adjective explains what you think about something.
Examples: funny, beautiful, ugly, easy
Size A size adjective, tells you how big or small something is.
Examples: small, tiny, large, little
Age An age adjective tells you how old or young someone or something is.
Examples: new, young, old
Shape A shape adjective describes the shape of something.
Examples: round, uneven, triangular
Colour A colour adjective, describes the colour of something.
Examples: black, pink, orange, blue
Origin An origin adjective describes where something comes from.
Examples: English, American, western, Spanish
Material A material adjective describes what something is made from.
Examples: plastic, metal, paper
Purpose A purpose adjective describes what something is used for. These adjectives often end with "-ing".
Examples: sleeping (as in "sleeping bag"), baking (as in "baking tin")

2. Some examples of Adjective order

If we want to use more that one adjective in a sentence, we must keep them in the following order according to their type.

  • He’s a silly young fool.
  • She’s a smart, energetic woman.
Opinion Size Age Shape Colour Origin Material Purpose Noun
clever old Czech man
large square clay vessel
small blue sleeping bag

Note - In each case the adjective stays the same, whether it is describing a maculine, feminine, singular or plural noun.

3. What are comparative adjectives?

Comparative adjectives are used to compare 2 nouns or to say that one noun has more of something then the 2nd noun.

  • The black cat is older than the white cat.
  • My car is bigger than my sister’s car.
  • The blue shirt is more expensive than the red shirt.
How to form comparative adjectives.

"-er" is added to the end of a 1-syllable adjective.

  • cold – colder
  • small – smaller
  • tall – taller
  • The winter is colder than the summer.
  • The green hat is smaller than the yellow hat.
  • Most basketball players are taller than me.

"-er" is added to the end of an adjective with 2 syllables, if the word ends in -y.

  • easy – easier
  • happy – happier
  • crazy – crazier
  • The last task was easier than the first task.
  • I am happier now than 1 year ago.
  • My friend is crazier than me.

"more" is used for words that have 2 syllables, if the word doesn’t end in -y. adjectives that end in -y, change the -y to i and add –ed.

  • honest – more honest
  • modern – more modern
  • Policemen are more honest than criminals.
  • Our generation is more modern than our parents’ generation.

"more" or "less" is used for words that have 3 or more syllables.

  • expensive – more expensive
  • difficult – more difficult
  • comfortable – less comfortable
  • A new computer is more expensive than a used one.
  • The last test was more difficult than the test today.
  • This sofa is more comfortable than the one she has.

Adjectives that end in -e, only -r is added to end of the adjective.

  • nice – nicer
  • safe – safer
  • The barmaid was nicer to my boss than to me.
  • A Škoda is safer than a Trabant.

Adjective that end in a consonant, vowel, consonant - the last consonant is doubled.

  • big – bigger
  • fat – fatter
  • hot – hotter
  • My house is bigger than my sister’s house.
  • My sister is fatter than me.
  • The summer is hotter than the winter.

4. What are superlative adjectives?

Superlative adjectives are used to define the highest degree of a noun. Superlative adjectives are used only if 3 or more things or people are being compared.

  • The black cat is the biggest.
  • The last picture is the nicest.
  • My wife’s food is the best.

The structure of a superlative usually consists of the root of the adjective root of the adjective plus the suffix -est or "the most" or "the least" is added before the adjective in it’s root form.

The amount of syllables the adjectives contain determines if -est is added to the end of the adjective or if "most" or "least" is added before the adjective.

English Superlative Adjectives Rules

-est is added to the end of an adjective 1-syllable word

  • warm – warmest
  • small – smallest
  • tall – tallest
  • This summer is the warmest, that I can remember.
  • The green hat is the smallest hat in the store.
  • I am the tallest in my class.

Change the y to an -i.and add -est to the end of an adjective with 2 syllables, if the word ends in -y.

  • easy – easiest
  • happy – happiest
  • crazy – craziest
  • That was the easiest game she knew.
  • She is the happiest I have ever seen her.
  • I have the craziest dog I have ever seen.

"most" or "least" are used for adjectives that consist of two syllables, if the word doesn’t end in -y. adjectives that end in -y, change the -y to i and add –ed

  • honest – most honest
  • modern – most modern
  • Policemen are the most honest people that I know.
  • Our generation is the most modern.

"most" and "least" are used for adjectives that contain 3 or more syllables

  • expensive – most expensive
  • difficult – most difficult
  • comfortable – most comfortable
  • That is the most expensive dress in the store.
  • The last test was the most difficult.
  • These shoes are the most comfortable.

If an adjective ends in -e, then only -st is added to end of the adjective.

  • nice – nicest
  • safe – safest
  • Your family isthe nicest that I have ever met.
  • This car is the safer on the market.

Adjective that end in a consonant, vowel, consonant - the last consonant is doubled and -est is added to the end of the adjective.

  • big – biggest
  • fat – fattest
  • hot – hottest
  • My house is the biggest on the block.
  • My sister is the fattest in the school.
  • This summer is the hottest.


Most adverbs tell you how, where, or when something is done. In other words, they describe the manner, place, or time of an action. Here are some examples: :

Typ Adverbs Examples
How slowly
  • Paul drives slowly.
Place here
  • The meeting is going to take place here.
Time yesterday
  • I called my mother yesterday.

1. How to create an Adverb

Many adverbs end with the suffix -LY. Most of these are created by adding -LY to the end of an adjective, like this:

Tvorba příslovcí
Adjective Adverb
  • slow
  • slowly
  • quick
  • quickly
  • beautiful
  • beautifully
  • aggressive
  • aggressively

2. Adverbs that are the same as Adjectives

However, this is NOT a reliable way to find out whether a word is an adverb or not, for two reasons: many adverbs do NOT end in -LY (some are the same as the adjective form), and many words which are NOT adverbs DO end in -LY (such as kindly, friendly, elderly and lonely, which are adjectives).

Here are some examples of adverbs which are the same as adjectives:
Adjective Adverb
  • fast
  • fast
  • late
  • late
  • early
  • early

3. How to recognise an Adverb.

The best way to tell if a word is an adverb is to try making a question, for which the answer is the word. If the question uses how, where or when, then the word is probably an adverb.

Example Question Adverb?
  • Peter plays football aggressively.
  • How does Junko play football?
Yes - We asked "how", so it is an adverb.
  • They have a big boat.
  • What kind of boat do they have?
N0 - We asked "what kind", so it is an Adjective.
  • Kate called the police immediately.
  • When did Kate call the police?
Ano - We asked "when", so it is an Adverb.

4. More examples

Adjective Adverb
  • She was a pretty girl.
  • Jane sang prettily.
  • He was a serious boy.
  • The teacher spoke seriously.
  • It was a fast car.
  • Alonso drives fast.
  • They were quiet children.
  • The student spoke quietly.