A conjunction is a word that links words, phrases, or clauses. There are three types of conjunctions.

coordinating conjunctions for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so.

correlative conjunctions both...and, either...or, neither...nor, not only...but also.

subordinating conjunctions after, although, because, if.

1. Coordinating conjunctions

Coordinating conjunctions may join single words, or they may join groups of words, but they must always join similar elements: e.g. subject+subject, verb phrase+verb phrase, sentence+sentence.

Coordinating conjunctions are: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so.

Examples and sentences of coordinating conjunctions.
Conjunction What is linked Example
and noun phrase + noun phrase
  • We have tickets for the symphony and the opera.
but sentence + sentence
  • The orchestra rehearses on Tuesday, but the chorus rehearses on Wednesday.
or verb + verb
  • Have you seen or heard the opera by Scott Joplin?
so sentence + sentence
  • I wanted to sit in front row, so I ordered my tickets early.

Note : A noun phrase is either a single noun or pronoun or a group of words containing a noun or a pronoun that function together as a noun or pronoun, as the subject or object of a verb.

  • The student that I saw coming into school at nine o’clock has just left.
  • “ The students ... nine o’clock’ is a long noun phrase, but it functions as the subject of the main verb ’have just left “

2. Correlative conjunctions

Correlative conjunctions are always used in pairs. They join similar elements.

Correlative conjunctions are: both...and, not only...but also, either...or, neither...nor, whether...or.

Examples and sentences of Correlative conjunctions
Correlative conjunctions What is linked Example
both...and subject + subject
  • Both my sister and my brother play the piano.
either...or noun + noun
  • Tonight’s program is either Mozart or Beethoven.
neither...nor subject + subject
  • Neither the orchestra nor the chorus was able to overcome the terrible acoustics in the church.
  • >
not only...but also sentence + sentence
  • Not only does Sue raise money for the symphony, but she also ushers at all of their concerts.

3. Subordinating conjunctions.

A subordinating conjunction is a word which joins together a dependent (subordinate) clause and an independent clause.

A clause is a unit which contains a subject and a verb. For example, "It was snowing" is a clause; the subject is "it", "it", and the verb is "was snowing".

A dependent clause is a clause which cannot exist on its own; it needs a main (or independent) clause to go with it.

Example: Because it was snowing, I drove to work.

This sentence contains two clauses,"Because it was snowing" and "I drove to work". The first clause does not mean anything on its own. . If you say "Because it was snowing" and nothing else, people will not be able to understand what you mean. However "I drove to work" is an independent clause - we can understand what it means even if it is alone. In this example “because” is the subordinate conjunction.


Prepositions are a class of words that indicate relationships between nouns, pronouns and other words in a sentence. Most often they come before a noun.

The good news is that they never change their form, regardless of the case, gender etc. of the word they are referring to

1. Simple or Compound prepositions

Prepositions are classified as simple or compound.

Simple prepositions are single word prepositions - across, after, at, before, between, by, during, from, in, into, of, on, to, through, under, with and without are all single word prepositions.

  • The newspaper is on the chair.
  • The cat is under the table.

Compound prepositions are more than one word - in between and because of - are prepositions made up of two words - in front of, on behalf of are prepositions made up of three words.

  • My office is in between the bank and the post office.
  • .
  • My car is in front of my flat.

2. Prepositions of movement

Prepositions can be used to show movement. For example: to, through, across.

We use to to show movement with the aim of a specific destination.

  • I moved to Paris in 1999.
  • He went to the cinema at 3 pm.

We use through to show movement from one side of an enclosed space to the other side.

  • The train went through the tunnel.
  • He walked quickly through the door.

We use across to show movement from one side of a surface or line to another.

  • She swam across the lake.
  • He walked across the road.

3. Prepositions of Place

Prepositions can be used to show where something is located.

The prepostions - at, on, in

We use at to show a specific place or position.

  • I live at 36 Palace Road.
  • I am waiting at the bus stop.

We use on to show position on a horizontal or vertical surface.

  • There is a lot snow on the roof.
  • The dog is sitting on the chair.

We also use on to show a position on streets, roads, etc.

  • I used to live on Palace Road.
  • There is a petrol station on the corner of the street.

We use in to show that something is enclosed or surrounded.

  • She is in a taxi.
  • The cat is in the garden.

We also use in to show position within land-areas (towns, counties, states, countries, and continents).

  • I used to live in Nottingham.
  • I live in America.
More prepositions of place
  • They ran after the thief.
  • I found my handbag among my luggage.
  • The student was sitting at her table.
  • My flat is behind the supermarket.
  • The plates are in the cupboard.
  • My car is parked in front of the supermarket.
  • The post office is by / next to / besides the bank.
  • The picture is hanging on the wall.
  • The notice is above the door.
  • I put the tablecloth over the table.
  • The temperature was below zero degrees.
  • The boy was sitting under a tree.

4. Prepositions of time

Prepositions can be used to show when something happens. (time, day, date, month, year, morning, afternoon, evening,night, season)

Prepositions of time - at, on, in.

  • I go to work at 8.00 every day. (time)
  • I’ll see you on Tuesday. (day)
  • I have an exam on the 21st. (date)
  • My birthday is in December. (month)
  • I was born in 1965. (year)
  • I get up in the morning. (morning)
  • I have a meeting in the afternoon (afternoon)
  • I go home in the evening after work. (evening)
  • I go to bed at night. (night)
  • It usually snows in the winter. (season)