A pronoun is a word that substitutes a noun or noun phrase used to prevent repetition of the noun to which they refer.
A noun is a word that is person, place or thing. e.g. Peter, the bus, the cat, Prague, an opera
Pronouns are divided in the following area: Personal pronouns, Possesive pronouns, Demonstrative pronouns, Interogative pronouns, Relative pronouns, Reflexive pronouns, Reciprocal Pronouns and Double Possesive Pronouns.
Personal pronouns refer to a specific person or thing and change theirs forms to indicate person, number, gender and case.Subjective pronouns
|3rd person||he, she, it||they|
Subject pronouns are the ’who’ or ’what’ the sentence is about.
They usually replace the proper or common nouns.
Objective pronouns are used when the personal pronouns are in a different case then the first case.
Possesive pronouns and adjectives are words which define who owns the particular object or person.Possesive Adjectives
|1st person||I – my||we – our|
|2nd person osoba||you – your||you – your|
|3rd person||he – his
she – her
|they – their|
Note: Possesive adjectives cannot stand alone in the sentence (must be followed by a noun). A possesive adjective is usually used to describe a noun and comes before it, like other adjectives.Possesive Pronouns
|1st person||I – mine||we – ours|
|2nd person||you – yours||you – yours|
|3rd person||he – his
she – hers
it – its
|they – theirs|
Note: Possesive pronouns are not followed by nouns in the sentence. A possesive pronoun is used instead of a noun.
Demonstrative pronouns points to and identifies a noun or a pronoun. Demonstrative pronouns this, that, these and those..
This and these refer to nouns that are nearby in time or space.
That or those refer to nouns that are further away in time or space.
Thisand that refer to singular nouns
These and those refer to plural nouns.
Interogative pronouns are used to ask questions. The interogative pronouns are : what, which, who, whom and whose.
What can be used to ask about objects or people.
Which can be used to ask about objects or people.
Who can be used to ask about people
Whose can be used to ask about a possession relation.
Whom can be used to ask about people. It is less usual and more formal than "who"
Relative pronouns are used to link one phrase or clause to another phrase or clause. The most common relative pronouns are who, that, which .
Which is used with things.
Who is used with people.
That can be used with either people or things.
Other relative pronouns are : where, whose, when, how, why.
We use the reflexive pronouns to indicate that the person who realizes the action of the verb is the same person who receives the action.
|1st person||I – myself||we – ourselves|
|2nd person||you – yourself||you – yourselves|
|3rd person||he – himself
she – herself
it – itself
|they – themselves|
Reflexive pronouns always act as objects not subjects , and they require an interaction between the subject and an object.
Care must be taken to identify whether the noun is singular or plural and choose the pronoun accordingly.
The reflexive pronoun can also be used to give more emphasis to the subject or object (intensive pronoun).
We use reciprocal pronouns to indicate that two people can carry out an action and get the consequences of that action at the same time.
There are two reciprocal pronouns: each other, one another .
These pronouns enable to simplify sentences where the same general idea is expressed two or more times.
Using the reciprocal pronoun, "each other", this could be rewritten:
If you need to refer to more than two people, say the students in a classroom, then we could use the reciprocal pronoun, "one another".
A double genitive is a noun phrase which contains both the s-genitive (or a possessive pronoun) and the of-genitive.
Same meaning as possesive pronouns.:
Or one of several or some out of many:
Some and Any are from a group of words known as determiners. These words are mainly in sentences before nouns. for example - any money, some people, some money.
Some and Any is used when we want to talk about the quantity or volume of something, and either the exact number is unknown or it is unimportant or irrelevant.
We use "some" in positive sentences. We use some for both countable and uncountable nouns.
"Some" is used in questions, which we expect a positive response (usually when we offer something, or ask for something)
"Any" is used in positve questions.
"Any" is used is negative questions.
"Any" is used in grammatically positive sentences after words that have a negative or restrictive meaning. ie - never, hardly, without.
The same rules for some and any apply for somebody / anybody, someone / anyone, somewhere / anywhere, something / anything.
Other important aspects of the use of some and any is with countable nouns..
The general rule is that some and any is used with uncountable nouns (money, water, food, time) and nouns in the plurals (books, cars, students).
If we want to express a noun in the singular (book, car, student), then we must use the indefinite article „a“ or „an“.
"Some" can be used with singualr nouns when we want to emphasize that something is very vague, we do not know much about it, we do not care about it or it is not interesting for us.
"Some" can be used with singualr nouns when we want to emphasize that something is unusually good (something really great, - to show enthusiasm for something with informal speech.
"Any" can be used in a positive sentence to mean that it does not matter who or what.
"Any" can be used with if-clauses.